وَاصْبِرْ عَلٰي مَا يَقُوْلُوْنَ وَاهْجُرْهُمْ هَجْرًا جَمِيْلًا
(And bear patiently what they say, and part with them in a beautiful manner...73:10). According to Imam Karkhi (رح) تعالیٰ ، this is the sixth injunction given to the Holy Prophet that he should bear with patience and fortitude the jibes, opposition and persecution of his enemies. Perfect patience is the supreme station of suluk (methodical travelling along the spiritual path). Spiritual reformers expend their entire strength, energy and life in reforming the deviant people. In return, they have to hear vile language, they are persecuted and wronged in many different ways. In return, they exercise sabr (patience) in a beautiful manner. In other words, they do not even entertain the thought of revenge. This is the supreme station, which in Sufi terminology, is attained only after fana' kamil: 'complete negation of selfish desires'.
وَاهْجُرْهُمْ هَجْرًا جَمِيْلًا and part with them in a beautiful manner...73:10). The word hajr, literally, denotes 'to give up something in a state of grief, anger and temper'. The verse means that rejecters of Truth utter words that hurt. He should not take revenge, but maintain no relations with them either. At the time of severing relations, it is natural for man to utter words of complaint and disgust. Therefore, Allah's Messenger is told to cut off relations with the rejecters of Truth, but he must maintain his dignity and integrity. Hence, the verse contains the grammatically restricted cognate accusative, hajran jamilan, 'in a beautiful manner'. The high status and the exalted standard of character require that the Holy Prophet should restrain himself from making any abusive remarks at the deniers of Truth.
Some scholars of Tafsir say that the injunction of this verse is repealed by verses of jihad which were revealed later on. But a careful analysis indicates that the injunction is not repealed. The above verses enjoin patience and steadfastness in the face of what the enemies say and cutting off from them courteously. This is not in conflict with verses that deal with reproof, punishment and armed struggle that were revealed subsequently. The injunction of this verse is applicable at all times and under all circumstances, whereas jihad is reproof and punishment, and is a specific injunction to be applied under specific conditions. Islamic jihad and armed struggle is not a matter of taking revenge or expression of anger, which could be in conflict with patience and fortitude or courteous severance. It is purely acting on the Divine command as is patience and courteous severance under general circumstances. Up to this point the Holy Prophet ﷺ was commanded to be steadfast and to abstain from revenge. The next verse, reprimands the deniers of Truth that instead of being grateful to Allah for "ease and plenty" provided for them, they reject the Divine Message:
Allah commands His Messenger to be patient with what the foolish who reject him among his people say. Allah also commands him to keep away from them in a nice way. This means in a way that is not blameworthy. Then Allah says to him, as a threat and a warning to his people - and He (Allah) is the Most Great, Whose anger nothing can stand before,
(And leave Me alone to deal with the deniers, those who are in possession of good things of life.) meaning, `leave Me to deal with the rich rejectors, who own great wealth.' For verily, they are more able to obey than others besides them, and they are requested to give the rights (to people) because they have what others do not have.
(And give them respite for a little.) meaning, for a little while. This is as Allah says,
(We let them enjoy for a little, then in the end We shall oblige them to (enter) a great torment.) (31:24) Thus, Allah says,
(Verily, with Us are Ankal,) and these are fetters. Ibn `Abbas, `Ikrimah, Tawus, Muhammad bin Ka`b, `Abdullah bin Buraydah, Abu `Imran Al-Jawni, Abu Mijlaz, Ad-Dahhak, Hammad bin Abi Sulayman, Qatadah, As-Suddi, Ibn Al-Mubarak, Ath-Thawri and others have all said this.
(and Jahim.) This is a blazing fire.
(And a food that chokes,) Ibn `Abbas said, "This means it will get stuck in the throat and it will not enter or come out."
(and a painful torment. On the Day when the earth and the mountains will (Tarjuf) shake,) meaning, they will quake.
(And the mountains will be a heap of sand poured out.) meaning, they will become like hills of sand after they had been firm rocks. Then they will be utterly destroyed and nothing will remain of them. This will occur until the entire earth becomes a flat land and no curvature will be seen in it. Thus, there will be no valleys and no hills. This means that no part of it will be low or elevated.
Then addresses the disbelievers of the Quraysh, and along with them the rest of mankind,
(Verily, We have sent to you a Messenger to be a witness over you,) meaning, witnessing your deeds.
(as We did send a Messenger to Fir`awn. But Fir`awn disobeyed the Messenger; so We seized him with a severe punishment.)
(severe punishment) Ibn Abbas, Mujahid, Qatadah, As-Suddi, and Ath-Thawri said that this means severe. This means, `you should beware of denying this Messenger, lest you be afflicted by that which befell Fir`awn. Allah seized him with the seizing of One Mighty and Powerful.' This is as Allah says,
(So Allah seized him with punishment for his last and first transgression.) (79:25) `Therefore, you will be even more deserving of destruction and ruin if you deny your Messenger, because your Messenger is more noble and a greater than Prophet Musa, the son of `Imran.' This has been reported from Ibn `Abbas and Mujahid.
(Then how can you proctect yourselves from the punishment, if you disbelieved, on a Day that will make the children gray-headed) Ibn Jarir quoted in the recitation of Ibn Mas`ud: "How can you, O people, fear a Day that makes the children grey-headed, if you disbelieve in Allah and do not testify to Him" So the first interpretation would mean, `how can you attain safety for yourselves from the Day of this great horror if you disbelieve' It could imply the meaning, `how can you all attain piety if you disbelieve in the Day of Judgement and reject it.' Both of these meanings are good. However, the first interpretation is closer to the truth. And Allah knows best. The meaning of Allah's statement,
(On a Day that will make the children gray-headed) is that this will happen due to the severity of its horrors, its earth- quakes and its distur- bing confusion. This is when Allah will say to Adam, "Send a group to the Fire." Adam will say, "How many" Allah will then reply, "From every thousand, nine hundred and ninety-nine to the Fire, and one to Paradise." Then Allah says,
(Whereon the heaven will be cleft asunder) Al-Hasan and Qatadah both said, "This means, because of it (the Day of Judge- ment), due to its severity and its horror." Then Allah says,
(His promise is certainly to be accomplished.) meaning, the promise of this Day will be fulfilled. This means it will occur and there is no way around it, and it will come to pass and there is no avoiding it.