Surah Al-Fath (48): Read Online and Download - English Translation

This page contains all verses of surah Al-Fath in addition to Interpretation of all verses by Tafsir Ibn Kathir (Hafiz Ibn Kathir). In the first part you can read surah الفتح ordered in pages exactly as it is present in the Quran. To read an interpretation of a verse click on its number.

Information About Surah Al-Fath

Surah Al-Fath in the Quran

Surah Al-Fath, also known as "The Victory," is the 48th chapter of the Quran. It consists of 29 verses and is classified as a Madinan surah. The surah is named after the word "Fath" which means "victory" and is mentioned in the first verse of the surah.

The surah focuses on the Treaty of Hudaybiyyah, a pivotal event in the history of Islam. It discusses the peace treaty between the Muslims and the Quraysh, which was initially perceived as a setback by the Muslims but ultimately led to a great victory and expansion of Islam.

Surah Al-Fath emphasizes the concept of victory not only in the context of physical conquests but also in terms of spiritual triumph and the ultimate success of the believers. It highlights the importance of patience, perseverance, and trust in Allah's plan, even in the face of apparent setbacks.

The surah also addresses the concept of forgiveness and mercy, urging the believers to show compassion and forgiveness towards their enemies and to strive for peaceful resolutions. It emphasizes the unity and strength of the Muslim community and the importance of upholding justice and righteousness.

Furthermore, Surah Al-Fath contains guidance for the believers on how to conduct themselves in various situations, including during times of peace and conflict. It encourages the believers to remain steadfast in their faith and to continue striving for the cause of truth and justice.

Overall, Surah Al-Fath serves as a source of inspiration and guidance for Muslims, reminding them of the ultimate victory that awaits those who remain steadfast in their faith and uphold the principles of righteousness and justice.

Surah Al-Fath
سُورَةُ الفَتۡحِ
Page 511 (Verses from 1 to 9)

إِنَّا فَتَحْنَا لَكَ فَتْحًا مُّبِينًا لِّيَغْفِرَ لَكَ ٱللَّهُ مَا تَقَدَّمَ مِن ذَنۢبِكَ وَمَا تَأَخَّرَ وَيُتِمَّ نِعْمَتَهُۥ عَلَيْكَ وَيَهْدِيَكَ صِرَٰطًا مُّسْتَقِيمًا وَيَنصُرَكَ ٱللَّهُ نَصْرًا عَزِيزًا هُوَ ٱلَّذِىٓ أَنزَلَ ٱلسَّكِينَةَ فِى قُلُوبِ ٱلْمُؤْمِنِينَ لِيَزْدَادُوٓا۟ إِيمَٰنًا مَّعَ إِيمَٰنِهِمْ ۗ وَلِلَّهِ جُنُودُ ٱلسَّمَٰوَٰتِ وَٱلْأَرْضِ ۚ وَكَانَ ٱللَّهُ عَلِيمًا حَكِيمًا لِّيُدْخِلَ ٱلْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَٱلْمُؤْمِنَٰتِ جَنَّٰتٍ تَجْرِى مِن تَحْتِهَا ٱلْأَنْهَٰرُ خَٰلِدِينَ فِيهَا وَيُكَفِّرَ عَنْهُمْ سَيِّـَٔاتِهِمْ ۚ وَكَانَ ذَٰلِكَ عِندَ ٱللَّهِ فَوْزًا عَظِيمًا وَيُعَذِّبَ ٱلْمُنَٰفِقِينَ وَٱلْمُنَٰفِقَٰتِ وَٱلْمُشْرِكِينَ وَٱلْمُشْرِكَٰتِ ٱلظَّآنِّينَ بِٱللَّهِ ظَنَّ ٱلسَّوْءِ ۚ عَلَيْهِمْ دَآئِرَةُ ٱلسَّوْءِ ۖ وَغَضِبَ ٱللَّهُ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلَعَنَهُمْ وَأَعَدَّ لَهُمْ جَهَنَّمَ ۖ وَسَآءَتْ مَصِيرًا وَلِلَّهِ جُنُودُ ٱلسَّمَٰوَٰتِ وَٱلْأَرْضِ ۚ وَكَانَ ٱللَّهُ عَزِيزًا حَكِيمًا إِنَّآ أَرْسَلْنَٰكَ شَٰهِدًا وَمُبَشِّرًا وَنَذِيرًا لِّتُؤْمِنُوا۟ بِٱللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِۦ وَتُعَزِّرُوهُ وَتُوَقِّرُوهُ وَتُسَبِّحُوهُ بُكْرَةً وَأَصِيلًا
511

Listen to Surah Al-Fath (Arabic and English translation)

Tafsir of Surah Al-Fath (Tafsir Ibn Kathir: Hafiz Ibn Kathir)

English Translation

Indeed, We have given you, [O Muhammad], a clear conquest

English Transliteration

Inna fatahna laka fathan mubeenan

Which was revealed in Al-Madinah

The Merit of Surah Al-Fath

Imam Ahmad recorded from `Abdullah bin Mughaffal, who said that Allah's Messenger recited Surah Al-Fath on the (day) of the conquest of Makkah, riding on his she-camel. He recited it in a vibrating and pleasant tone. Mu`awiyah (a subnarrator) added: "Were I not afraid that the people would crowd around me, I would surely try to imitate and produce his recitation." Both Al-Bukhari and Muslim recorded this Hadith through Shu`bah.

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

The Reason behind revealing Surat Al-Fath

This honorable Surah was revealed after the Messenger of Allah returned from the area of Al-Hudaybiyyah, during the month of Dhul-Qa`dah, in the sixth year of Hijrah. This is when the idolators prevented him from reaching Al-Masjid Al-Haram to perform the `Umrah he intended. They stopped the Prophet from reaching Makkah at that time, but then were prone to peace negotiations. A peace treaty was conducted stipulating that the Messenger would return this year and then come back for `Umrah the following year. The Messenger agreed. However, some of the Companions disliked these terms, including `Umar bin Al-Khattab, as we will mention in detail, Allah willing, while explaining this Surah. After the Prophet slaughtered his sacrificial animals in the area where he was stopped and headed back to Al-Madinah, Allah the Exalted and Most Honored revealed this Surah about what occurred between him and the idolators. Allah declared the Al-Hudaybiyyah peace treaty a manifest victory, because of the benefits peace would carry and the good results that did originate from it. `Abdullah bin Mas`ud and other Companions said, "You consider the conquering of Makkah to be Al-Fath (the victory), while to us, Al-Fath is the treaty conducted at Al-Hلudaybiyyah." Jabir (bin `Abdullah) said, "We only considered Al-Fath to be the day of Hلudaybiyyah!" Al-Bukhari recorded that Al-Bara' (bin `Azib) said, "You consider Al-Fath to be the conquest of Makkah, which was indeed a victory. However, we consider Al-Fath to be the pledge of Ar-Ridwan on the Day of Al-Hudaybiyyah. Then, we were fourteen hundred with the Messenger of Allah . Al-Hudaybiyyah had a well, whose water we consumed, not leaving a drop of water in it. When the news of what happened reached the Messenger of Allah , he came towards us and sat on the edge of the well. Then he asked to be brought a bucket of water and used it for ablution. He next rinsed his mouth, invoked Allah and poured that water into the well. Soon after, that well provided us, as well as our animals, with sufficient water, in whatever amount of water we wished. Imam Ahmad recorded that `Umar bin Al-Khattab said, "We were with the Messenger of Allah on a trip, and I asked him about a matter three times, but he did not answer me. So I said to myself, `May your mother lose you, O son of Al-Khattab! You were stubborn in repeating your question three times to the Messenger of Allah ; each time he did not respond to you.' So I mounted my animal, my camel, and went ahead for fear that a part of the Qur'an might be revealed in my case. Suddenly, I heard a caller calling, `O `Umar!' So, I went to the Messenger while fearing that part of the Qur'an was revealed about me. The Prophet said,

«نَزَلَ عَلَيَّ الْبَارِحَةَ سُورَةٌ هِيَ أَحَبُّ إِلَيَّ مِنَ الدُّنْيَا وَمَا فِيهَا:
إِنَّا فَتَحْنَا لَكَ فَتْحاً مُّبِيناً لِّيَغْفِرَ لَكَ اللَّهُ مَا تَقَدَّمَ مِن ذَنبِكَ وَمَا تَأَخَّرَ»

(Last night, a Surah was revealed to me that is dearer to me than this life and all that it contains: (Verily, We have given you a manifest victory. That Allah may forgive you your sins of the past and the future.)) Al-Bukhari, At-Tirmidhi and An-Nasa'i collected this Hadith from several chains of narration through Malik, may Allah grant him His mercy. `Ali bin Al-Madini commented, "This is a good chain of narration consisting of the scholars of Al-Madinah." Imam Ahmad recorded that Anas bin Malik said, "This Ayah was revealed to the Prophet ,

لِّيَغْفِرَ لَكَ اللَّهُ مَا تَقَدَّمَ مِن ذَنبِكَ وَمَا تَأَخَّرَ

(That Allah may forgive you your sins of the past and the future,) on his return from Al-Hudaybiyyah. The Prophet said,

«لَقَدْ أُنْزِلَتْ عَلَيَّ اللَّيْلَةَ آيَةٌ أَحَبُّ إِلَيَّ مِمَّا عَلَى الْأَرْض»

(Tonight, an Ayah, that is dearer to me than all that the earth carries, was revealed to me.) The Prophet recited the Ayah to them. They said, `Congratulations, O Allah's Messenger! Allah the Exalted and Most Honored has stated what He will do with you. So what will He do with us' These Ayat were revealed to the Prophet ,

لِّيُدْخِلَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَالْمُؤْمِنَـتِ جَنَّـتٍ تَجْرِى مِن تَحْتِهَا الاٌّنْهَـرُ

(That He may admit the believing men and the believing women to Gardens under which rivers flow. ..), until,

فَوْزاً عَظِيماً

(...a supreme success.)" This Hadith is recorded in the Two Sahihs. Imam Ahmad recorded that Al-Mughirah bin Shu`bah said, "The Prophet used to pray until both his feet were swollen. He was asked, `Has not Allah forgiven you all your sins of the past and of future' He said,

«أَفَلَا أَكُونُ عَبْدًا شَكُورًا؟»

(Should I not be a thankful servant)" The two collectors of the Sahihs collected this Hadith, as well as, the rest of the Group, except Abu Dawud. Allah's statement,

إِنَّا فَتَحْنَا لَكَ فَتْحاً مُّبِيناً

(Verily, We have given you a manifest victory.) means, clear and apparent victory. This Ayah is about the treaty at Al-Hudaybiyyah, which resulted in great goodness, including people embracing Islam in large crowds and having the chance to meet each other openly. During that time, the believers preached to the idolators and thus beneficial knowledge and faith spread all around. Allah's statement,

لِّيَغْفِرَ لَكَ اللَّهُ مَا تَقَدَّمَ مِن ذَنبِكَ وَمَا تَأَخَّرَ

(That Allah may forgive you your sins of the past and the future, ) contains one of the special virtues of the Messenger , and no one else shares this honor with him. There is not an authentic Hadith that states that any person other than the Messenger earned forgiveness for all of his sins of the past and future on account of performing good deeds. This, indeed, is a great honor for the Messenger of Allah , who fulfilled the requirements of Allah's obedience, righteousness and straightness at a level never surpassed by a human being in past generations, nor will it ever be surpassed in the generations to come. Muhammad is the perfect human being and the leader and chief of all mankind in this life and the Hereafter. And since he was, and will always be, the most obedient of Allah's creation to Him and the most honoring of Allah's commands and prohibitions, he said when his she- camel insisted on kneeling down,

«حَبَسَها حَابِسُ الْفِيل»

(He Who stopped the elephant, has stopped her too.) The Prophet then declared,

«وَالَّذِي نَفْسِي بِيَدِهِ لَا يَسْأَلُونِّي الْيَوْمَ شَيْئًا يُعَظِّمُونَ بِهِ حُرُمَاتِ اللهِ إِلَّا أَجَبْتُهُمْ إِلَيْهَا»

(By the Name of Him in Whose Hand my soul is, this day, if they ask me anything which will respect the ordinances of Allah, I will grant it to them.) And when the Messenger obeyed Allah and accepted the peace offer from the Quraysh, Allah the Exalted said to him,

إِنَّا فَتَحْنَا لَكَ فَتْحاً مُّبِيناً لِّيَغْفِرَ لَكَ اللَّهُ مَا تَقَدَّمَ مِن ذَنبِكَ وَمَا تَأَخَّرَ وَيُتِمَّ نِعْمَتَهُ عَلَيْكَ

(Verily, We have given you a manifest victory. That Allah may forgive you your sins of the past and the future, and complete His favor on you,) in this life and the Hereafter,

وَيَهْدِيَكَ صِرَطاً مُّسْتَقِيماً

(and guide you on the straight path,) with the glorious legislation and the straight religion that He ordains on you,

وَيَنصُرَكَ اللَّهُ نَصْراً عَزِيزاً

(And that Allah may help you with strong help.) due to your obedience of the orders of Allah, the Exalted and Most Honored; Allah will elevate your status and give you victory above your enemies. An authentic Hadith states,

«وَمَا زَادَ اللهُ عَبْدًا بِعَفْوٍ إِلَّا عِزًّا. وَمَا تَوَاضَعَ أَحَدٌ للهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ إِلَّا رَفَعَهُ اللهُ تَعَالَى»

(No servant pardons but Allah grants him honor, and none humbles himself for Allah except that Allah the exalted and sublime raises him (in rank).) `Umar bin Al-Khattab said, "You will never punish someone who disobeyed Allah with you better than obeying Allah the Exalted and Most Honored with him."

English Translation

That Allah may forgive for you what preceded of your sin and what will follow and complete His favor upon you and guide you to a straight path

English Transliteration

Liyaghfira laka Allahu ma taqaddama min thanbika wama taakhkhara wayutimma niAAmatahu AAalayka wayahdiyaka siratan mustaqeeman

English Translation

And [that] Allah may aid you with a mighty victory.

English Transliteration

Wayansuraka Allahu nasran AAazeezan

English Translation

It is He who sent down tranquillity into the hearts of the believers that they would increase in faith along with their [present] faith. And to Allah belong the soldiers of the heavens and the earth, and ever is Allah Knowing and Wise.

English Transliteration

Huwa allathee anzala alssakeenata fee quloobi almumineena liyazdadoo eemanan maAAa eemanihim walillahi junoodu alssamawati waalardi wakana Allahu AAaleeman hakeeman

Allah sent down the Sakinah into the Hearts of the Believers

Allah the Exalted said,

هُوَ الَّذِى أَنزَلَ السَّكِينَةَ

(He it is Who sent down As-Sakinah), meaning, tranquility. Qatadah commented, "Grace into the hearts of the believers", that is, the Companions, may Allah be pleased with them, on the Day of Al-Hudaybiyyah. The companions were they, who accepted the call of Allah and His Messenger and obeyed the decisions of Allah and His Messenger . When their hearts felt content with acceptance and were at peace, Allah increased their faith, joining it to the faith they already had. Al-Bukhari, and other Imams, relied on this Ayah as proof that faith increases and decreases in the hearts. Allah the Exalted said next that had He willed, He would have inflicted defeat on the disbelievers, Allah says;

وَلِلَّهِ جُنُودُ السَّمَـوَتِ وَالاٌّرْضِ

(And to Allah belong the armies of the heavens and the earth) and had He willed to send only one angel to them, that angel would have brought destruction to all what they had. However, Allah the Exalted willed Jihad and fighting to be established for, and by, the believers for great wisdom, clear reasons and unequivocal evidences that He had in all this. This is why Allah the Great said next,

وَكَانَ اللَّهُ عَلِيماً حَكِيماً

(and Allah is Ever All-Knower, All-Wise.) Allah the Exalted and Most Honored said,

لِّيُدْخِلَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَالْمُؤْمِنَـتِ جَنَّـتٍ تَجْرِى مِن تَحْتِهَا الاٌّنْهَـرُ خَـلِدِينَ فِيهَا

(That He may admit the believing men and the believing women to Gardens under which rivers flow to abide therein forever,) We mentioned the Hadith that Anas narrated in which the Companions said, "Congratulations, O Allah's Messenger! This good news is for you, so what good news do we have" Allah the Exalted sent down this Ayah,

لِّيُدْخِلَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَالْمُؤْمِنَـتِ جَنَّـتٍ تَجْرِى مِن تَحْتِهَا الاٌّنْهَـرُ خَـلِدِينَ فِيهَا

(That He may admit the believing men and the believing women to Gardens under which rivers flow to abide therein forever,) meaning they will remain in Paradise forever,

وَيُكَفِّرَ عَنْهُمْ سَيِّئَـتِهِمْ

(and He may expiate from them their sins;) Allah will not punish them for their errors and mistakes. Rather, He will forgive, absolve and pardon them and cover the errors, grant mercy and appreciate,

وَكَانَ ذَلِكَ عِندَ اللَّهِ فَوْزاً عَظِيماً

(and that is with Allah supreme success.) Allah the Exalted said in a similar Ayah,

فَمَن زُحْزِحَ عَنِ النَّارِ وَأُدْخِلَ الْجَنَّةَ فَقَدْ فَازَ

(And whoever is removed away from the Fire and admitted to Paradise, he indeed is successful.) (3:185) Allah said,

وَيُعَذِّبَ الْمُنَـفِقِينَ وَالْمُنَـفِقَـتِ وَالْمُشْرِكِينَ وَالْمُشْرِكَـتِ الظَّآنِّينَ بِاللَّهِ ظَنَّ السَّوْءِ

(And that He may punish the hypocrites, men and women, and also the idolators, men and women, who think evil thoughts about Allah,) who question the wisdom in Allah's decisions and think that the Messenger and his Companions, may Allah be pleased with them, might be killed and exterminated. This is why Allah the Exalted said,

عَلَيْهِمْ دَآئِرَةُ السَّوْءِ وَغَضِبَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلَعَنَهُمْ

(for them is a disgraceful torment. And the anger of Allah is upon them, and He has cursed them) He has cast them away from His mercy,

وَأَعَدَّ لَهُمْ جَهَنَّمَ وَسَآءَتْ مَصِيراً

(and prepared Hell for them -- and worst indeed is that destination.) Allah the Exalted and Most Honored asserted His ability to take revenge from the enemies of Islam and all disbelievers and hypocrites,

وَلِلَّهِ جُنُودُ السَّمَـوَتِ وَالاٌّرْضِ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ عَزِيزاً حَكِيماً

(And to Allah belong the armies of the heavens and the earth. And Allah is Ever All-Powerful, All-Wise.)

English Translation

[And] that He may admit the believing men and the believing women to gardens beneath which rivers flow to abide therein eternally and remove from them their misdeeds - and ever is that, in the sight of Allah, a great attainment -

English Transliteration

Liyudkhila almumineena waalmuminati jannatin tajree min tahtiha alanharu khalideena feeha wayukaffira AAanhum sayyiatihim wakana thalika AAinda Allahi fawzan AAatheeman

English Translation

And [that] He may punish the hypocrite men and hypocrite women, and the polytheist men and polytheist women - those who assume about Allah an assumption of evil nature. Upon them is a misfortune of evil nature; and Allah has become angry with them and has cursed them and prepared for them Hell, and evil it is as a destination.

English Transliteration

WayuAAaththiba almunafiqeena waalmunafiqati waalmushrikeena waalmushrikati alththanneena biAllahi thanna alssawi AAalayhim dairatu alssawi waghadiba Allahu AAalayhim walaAAanahum waaAAadda lahum jahannama wasaat maseeran

English Translation

And to Allah belong the soldiers of the heavens and the earth. And ever is Allah Exalted in Might and Wise.

English Transliteration

Walillahi junoodu alssamawati waalardi wakana Allahu AAazeezan hakeeman

English Translation

Indeed, We have sent you as a witness and a bringer of good tidings and a warner

English Transliteration

Inna arsalnaka shahidan wamubashshiran wanatheeran

Qualities of the Messenger of Allah

Allah the Exalted says to His Prophet, Muhammad ,

إِنَّآ أَرْسَلْنَـكَ شَاهِداً

(Verily, We have sent you as a witness,) of the creation,

وَمُبَشِّراً

(as a bearer of glad tidings,) to the believers,

وَنَذِيرًا

(and as a warner.) to the disbelievers. We explained these meanings in the Tafsir of Surat Al-Ahzab. Allah said,

لِّتُؤْمِنُواْ بِاللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ وَتُعَزِّرُوهُ

(In order that you may believe in Allah and His Messenger, and that you Tu`azziruh) or you honor him, according to `Abdullah bin `Abbas and several others,

وَتُوَقِّرُوهُ

(and Tuwaqqiruh), where Tawqir means, respect, honor and high regard,

وَتُسَبِّحُوهُ

(and that you Tusabbihuh), glorify Allah's praises,

بُكْرَةً وَأَصِيلاً

(Bukrah and Asila), the early and late part of the day.

The Pledge of Ar-Ridwan

Allah the Exalted and Most Honored honors, regards and praises His Messenger by saying,

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يُبَايِعُونَكَ إِنَّمَا يُبَايِعُونَ اللَّهَ

(Verily, those who give pledge to you, they are giving pledge to Allah.) Allah the Exalted and Most High said in another Ayah,

مَّنْ يُطِعِ الرَّسُولَ فَقَدْ أَطَاعَ اللَّهَ

(He who obeys the Messenger, has indeed obeyed Allah.) (4:80) Allah said, next,

يَدُ اللَّهِ فَوْقَ أَيْدِيهِمْ

(The Hand of Allah is over their hands.) meaning, He is with them, hearing their statements and witnessing their stand, having full knowledge of them inwardly and outwardly. Therefore, Allah the Exalted was indeed taking the pledge from them through His Messenger ,

إِنَّ اللَّهَ اشْتَرَى مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ أَنفُسَهُمْ وَأَمْوَلَهُمْ بِأَنَّ لَهُمُ الّجَنَّةَ يُقَـتِلُونَ فِى سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ فَيَقْتُلُونَ وَيُقْتَلُونَ وَعْدًا عَلَيْهِ حَقًّا فِي التَّوْرَاةِ وَالإِنجِيلِ وَالْقُرْءانِ وَمَنْ أَوْفَى بِعَهْدِهِ مِنَ اللَّهِ فَاسْتَبْشِرُواْ بِبَيْعِكُمُ الَّذِى بَايَعْتُمْ بِهِ وَذَلِكَ هُوَ الْفَوْزُ الْعَظِيمُ

(Verily, Allah has purchased of the believers their lives and their properties for which theirs shall be the Paradise. They fight in Allah's cause, so they kill and are killed. It is a promise in truth, binding on Him in the Tawrah and the Injil and the Qur'an. And who is truer to his covenant than Allah Then rejoice in the bargain you have concluded. That is the supreme success.)(9:111) Allah said,

وَمَنْ أَوْفَى بِمَا عَـهَدَ عَلَيْهِ اللَّهَ فَسَيُؤْتِيهِ أَجْراً عَظِيماً

(...and whosoever fulfills what the covenants he makes with Allah, He will bestow on him a great reward.) a generous reward. The pledge mentioned here is the pledge of Ar-Ridwan which was pledged under a tree, a Samurah, in the area of Al-Hudaybiyyah. The number of the Companions who gave their pledge to Allah's Messenger at that time was either 1,300, 1,400 or 1,500. However, 1,400 is the better choice.

Hadiths about the Pledge at Al-Hudaybiyyah

Al-Bukhari recorded that Jabir bin `Abdullah, may Allah be pleased with him, said, "We numbered one thousand and four hundred on the day of Hudaybiyyah." Muslim also collected this Hadith. The Two Sahihs recorded that Jabir said; "We numbered one thousand and four hundred at that time. The Messenger placed his hand in the water and it started gushing forth from between his fingers until everyone had quenched their thirst." This is a short form of the story. Another narration of it mentioned that the Companions became thirsty on the day of Al-Hudaybiyyah and the Messenger of Allah gave them an arrow from his quiver. They took the arrow, placed it in the well of Al-Hudaybiyyah and the water gushed out until they all satisfied their thirst. Jabir was asked how many of them there were on that day and he said, "We were one thousand and four hundred. And had we been a hundred thousand, that water would still have been sufficient to satisfy us all." In another narration collected in the Two Sahihs, Jabir bin `Abdullah said that they were one thousand and five hundred at the time. Al-Bukhari recorded that Sa`id bin Al-Musayyib was asked by Qatadah, "How many were present for the pledge of Ar-Ridwan" Sa`id said, "One thousand and five hundred." Qatadah posed, "Jabir bin `Abdullah, may Allah be pleased with them both, said that they were one thousand and four hundred." Sa`id said, "He forgot. He told me that they were one thousand and five hundred." However, Al-Bayhaqi commented, "This narration testifies that Jabir used to state that they were one thousand and five hundred, but later on remembered the true number and said that they were one thousand and four hundred."

The Reason behind conducting the Pledge of Ar-Ridwan

Muhammad bin Ishaq bin Yasar said in his book on Sirah: "The Messenger of Allah beckoned `Umar bin Al-Khattab in order to send him to Makkah, so that he could inform the chiefs of Quraysh of the Prophet's intent (to perform `Umrah at Makkah). `Umar said, `O Allah's Messenger! I fear the Quraysh for my being. There are no longer any chiefs from the tribe of Bani `Adi bin Ka`b remaining in Makkah who would protect me, in addition, the Quraysh know my enmity and harshness against them. However, I could tell you about a man who is mightier than I in Makkah: `Uthman bin `Affan. We should send him to Abu Sufyan and the chiefs of the Quraysh informing them that you did not come to fight them, but to visit this House and to honor its holiness.' `Uthman left to Makkah. He met Aban bin Sa`id bin Al-`As upon entering Makkah or just before that. As a result, Aban took `Uthman with him and extended his protection to him so he could deliver the message of Allah's Messenger . `Uthman indeed went to Abu Sufyan and the chiefs of Quraysh and imparted the Prophet's message that he was sent with. When `Uthman finished delivering the Prophet's message to them they said to him, `If you wish, you can perform Tawaf around the House.' `Uthman replied, `I would not do that before the Messenger of Allah gets the chance to perform Tawaf around it.' So the Quraysh kept `Uthman waiting in Makkah. However, the Messenger of Allah and the Muslims were told that `Uthman had been killed." Ibn Ishaq continued, "I was told by `Abdullah bin Abu Bakr that when news of `Uthman's death was conveyed to him, the Messenger of Allah said,

«لَا نَبْرَحُ حَتْى نُنَاجِزَ الْقَوْم»

(We will not leave until we fight the people.)" Ibn Ishaq continued, "The Messenger of Allah called the Muslims to give a pledge of allegiance, resulting in the pledge of Ar-Ridwan being conducted under the tree. Later, people used to say that the Messenger of Allah took the pledge from them to die. However, Jabir bin `Abdullah said, `The Messenger of Allah did not ask us to give a pledge to die (or be victorious), but that we would not run away (from battle).' The Muslims gave their pledge and none among them held back from giving it, except Al-Jadd bin Qays from the tribe of Bani Salamah. Jabir used to say afterwards, `By Allah, it is as if I am looking at him now next to the shoulder of his camel taking refuge behind it, so that the people did not see him.' Soon afterwards, news came to the Messenger of Allah that the story of `Uthman's death was not true." Al-Bukhari recorded that Nafi` said, "People said that `Abdullah bin `Umar embraced Islam before `Umar, but this is not true. What happened is that on the Day of Hudaybiyyah, `Umar sent `Abdullah to bring his horse that he kept with a man from Al-Ansar, so he could use it to fight. The Messenger of Allah was then taking the pledge from the Muslims under the tree while `Umar was unaware. So, `Abdullah conducted his pledge and fetched the horse and brought it to `Umar, who was wearing his armor in preparation for battle. `Abdullah told `Umar that the Messenger of Allah was accepting the pledge under the tree. `Umar proceeded with `Abdullah and gave his pledge to the Messenger of Allah . This is why some people thought that `Abdullah bin `Umar embraced Islam before `Umar, may Allah be pleased with them both." Al-Bukhari also recorded Ibn `Umar saying that, the people who were with the Messenger of Allah scattered under the shade of trees. Suddenly, the people gathered around the Prophet and `Umar said, "O `Abdullah! Investigate why the people are gathering around Allah's Messenger." Ibn `Umar found the people giving their pledge. He gave his pledge, then went back and told `Umar, who also went and gave his pledge. In a Hadith collected by Muslim, Jabir bin `Abdullah said, "On the day of Al-Hudaybiyyah, we were one thousand and four hundred. We gave the pledge of allegiance to the Prophet while `Umar was holding the Prophet's hand under the tree, which was a Samurah (a kind of thorny tree). We gave the pledge to him not to run away (from battle). We did not give the pledge to die." Muslim recorded that Ma`qil bin Yasar, may Allah be pleased with him, said, "On the day of the Tree, while the Prophet was taking the pledge from the people, I was holding a branch of that tree away from his head. We were fourteen hundred. We did not give him our pledge to die, but gave the pledge not to run from battle." However, Al-Bukhari recorded that Salamah bin Al-Akwa`, may Allah be pleased with him, said, "I gave the pledge to the Messenger of Allah under the tree." Yazid asked him, "O Abu Maslamah, to what did you pledge at that time" Salamah said, "To die!" Al-Bukhari also collected a Hadith from Salamah bin Al-Akwa` that he said, "I gave my pledge to the Messenger of Allah on the day of Hudaybiyyah. I stood to the side and the Messenger said,

«يَا سَلَمَةُ أَلَا تُبَايِعُ؟»

(Why not give the pledge, O Salamah) and I said, `I did.' He said,

«أَقْبِلْ فَبَايِع»

(Come and give pledge). I went close to him and gave him my pledge."' Salamah was asked, "What was the pledge that you gave then, O Salamah" Salamah said, "To die." Muslim collected this Hadith as well, while Al-Bukhari collected from `Abbad bin Tamim that the pledge they gave was to die. Al-Bayhaqi recorded that Salamah bin Al-Akwa`, may Allah be pleased with him said, "We went to Al-Hudaybiyyah with the Messenger of Allah , and we numbered fourteen hundred at that time. We reached the well and found around fifty sheep drinking from it, but its water was barely sufficient for them. The Messenger of Allah sat on its rim, invoked Allah and spat in the well and its water gushed out. We made our animals drink from it and also drank from it. Next, the Messenger of Allah called the people to give the pledge when he was under the tree, and I was among the first to give the pledge to him. The remaining people then started giving the pledge. When about half the people have given the pledge, the Messenger said to me,

«بَايِعْنِي يَا سَلَمَة»

(Give me the pledge, O Salamah!) I said, `O Allah's Messenger! I have already pledged my pledge in the first group of people.' He said,

«وَأَيْضًا»

(Do it again.) So I pledged my pledge again. He also saw that I was not wearing any armor and gave me some. He went on accepting the pledge from the people. When they were about to finish, he said,

«أَلَا تُبَايِـــعُ يَا سَلَمَةُ؟»

(Will you not give me your pledge, O Salamah!) I said, `O Allah's Messenger! I have given you the pledge in the beginning and the middle. ' He said,

«وَأَيْضًا»

(Do it again,) I gave him my pledge for a third time. The Messenger of Allah asked me,

«يَا سَلَمَةُ أَيْنَ حَجَفَتُكَ أَوْ دَرَقَتُكَ الَّتِي أَعْطَيْتُكَ؟»

(Where is the armor that I gave you O Salamah) I said, `O Allah's Messenger! `Amir met me and I found that he did not have a shield, so I gave it to him.' The Messenger of Allah laughed and said to me,

«إِنَّكَ كَالَّذِي قَالَ الْأَوَّلُ اللْهُمَّ أَبْغِنِي حَبِيبًا هُوَ أَحَبُّ إِلَيَّ مِنْ نَفْسِي»

(You are just like the man of old times who said, `O Allah! Give me a dear person who is dearer to me than myself!') Then the idolators of Makkah sent a delegation asking for a peace treaty, and we agreed to make peace. I used to work for Talhah bin `Ubaydullah, may Allah be pleased with him, by providing water for his horse. For taking care of it, Talhah gave me a portion of his food. I had left my family and wealth and migrated to Allah and His Messenger (so I was poor). After the people of Makkah and us conducted peace and were freely mingling with each other, I went by a tree, removed its thorny branches and rested under its shade. Four of the idolators of Makkah stood close to me and started mentioning the Messenger of Allah in an improper way and I hated being close to them. So, I moved under the shade of another tree. They hanged their weapons and rested under it. Meanwhile, a caller shouted these words from the bottom of the valley, `O Emigrants! Ibn Zunaym was killed,' so I held my sword and went after the four idolators. They were asleep, so I took possession of their weapons and held them in my hand, saying, `By He Who has honored the face of Muhammad , if any one of you raises his head, I will strike that which holds his eyes!' I brought them to the Messenger of Allah , while my uncle `Amir brought another man, an idolator, whose name was Mikraz, and I and my uncle brought the men to the Messenger of Allah . The number of captured idolators swelled to seventy. The Messenger of Allah looked at them and said,

«دَعُوهُمْ يَكُنْ لَهُمْ بَدْءُ الْفُجُورِ وَثِنَاه»

(Let them go, for theirs will be the initiation of hostilities and its burden.) The Messenger of Allah forgave them and Allah the Exalted and Most Honored said,

وَهُوَ الَّذِى كَفَّ أَيْدِيَهُمْ عَنكُمْ وَأَيْدِيَكُمْ عَنْهُم بِبَطْنِ مَكَّةَ مِن بَعْدِ أَنْ أَظْفَرَكُمْ عَلَيْهِمْ

(And He it is Who has withheld their hands from you and your hands from them in the midst of Makkah, after He had made you victors over them.)48:24" Muslim collected a narration that is the same or similar. The Two Sahihs recorded that Sa`id bin Al-Musayyib said, "My father was among those who gave the pledge to the Messenger of Allah under the tree. He said, `In the following year, we went for Hajj and we could not find the tree.' Therefore, if you know where that tree is, then you have more knowledge!" Abu Bakr Al-Humaydi recorded that Jabir said, "When the Messenger of Allah called the people to the pledge, we found a man from our tribe whose name is Al-Jadd bin Qays, hiding under the shoulder of his camel." Muslim collected this Hadith. Al-Humaydi also recorded that `Amr said that he heard Jabir say, "On the day of Hلudaybiyyah, we were one thousand and four hundred and the Messenger of Allah said to us,

«أَنْتُمْ خَيْرُ أَهْلِ الْأَرْضِ الْيَوْم»

(Today, you are the best people on the earth.)" Jabir went on saying, "If I still had my sight, I would have shown you the tree." Sufyan commented that the Companions later on differed over the location of the tree of Al-Hudaybiyyah; the Two Sahihs collected this statement from him. Imam Ahmad recorded that Jabir said that the Messenger of Allah said,

«لَا يَدْخُلُ النَّارَ أَحَدٌ مِمَّنْ بَايَعَ تَحْتَ الشَّجَرَة»

(None among those who gave the pledge under the tree shall enter Hellfire.) `Abdullah bin Imam Ahmad recorded that Jabir said that the Messenger of Allah said,

«مَنْ يَصْعَدُ الثَّنِيَّةَ ثَنِيَّةَ الْمُرَارِ فَإِنَّهُ يُحَطُّ عَنْهُ مَا حُطَّ عَنْ بَنِي إِسْرَائِيل»

(He who ascends Thaniyyah (i.e. a mountainous pass), the Thaniyyah of Al-Murar, will have as much of his sins relieved for him as the sins that were relieved from the Children of Israel.) The first to ascend that hill were the horsemen of (the Ansar tribe of) Banu Al-Khazraj, then the Muslims followed suit. The Prophet said,

«كُلُّكُمْ مَغْفُورٌ لَهُ إِلَّا صَاحِبَ الْجَمَلِ الْأَحْمَر»

(All of you will be forgiven, except the owner of the red camel.) We said to him, "Come, let the Messenger of Allah invoke Allah to forgive you," but he said, "By Allah! Finding my lost camel is dearer to me than having your companion invoke Allah to forgive me. " That man was only looking for his lost camel. Muslim collected this Hadith from Ubaydullah (from Jabir). Muslim also recorded that Abu Az-Zubayr heard Jabir say, "Umm Mubashshir told me that she heard the Messenger of Allah saying, while he was with Hafsah,

«لَا يَدْخُلُ النَّارَ إِنْ شَاءَ اللهُ تَعَالَى مِنْ أَصْحَابِ الشَّجَرَةِ الَّذِينَ بَايَعُوا تَحْتَهَا، أَحَد»

(Allah willing, none of the Companions of the tree, who gave the pledge under it, will ever enter Hellfire.) She said, `No, O Allah's Messenger.' The Prophet rebuked her but Hafsah said,

وَإِن مِّنكُمْ إِلاَّ وَارِدُهَا

(There is not one of you but will pass over it (Hell))(19:71) but the Prophet responded,

«قَدْ قَالَ اللهُ تَعَالَى:
ثُمَّ نُنَجِّى الَّذِينَ اتَّقَواْ وَّنَذَرُ الظَّـلِمِينَ فِيهَا جِثِيّاً »

(Allah the Exalted said next, (Then We shall save those who had Taqwa and We shall leave the wrongdoers therein on their knees.))(19:71)" Muslim also narrated that Jabir said, "A slave of Hatib bin Abi Balta`ah came to the Messenger complaining against Hatib and saying, `O Allah's Messenger! Hatib shall surely enter Hell.' The Messenger of Allah replied,

«كَذَبْتَ لَا يَدْخُلُهَا فَإِنَّهُ قَدْ شَهِدَ بَدْرًا وَالْحُدَيْبِيَّة»

(You lie, he shall never enter the Fire; he participated in Badr and Al-Hudaybiyyah.) This is why Allah the Exalted said while praising these Companions,

English Translation

That you [people] may believe in Allah and His Messenger and honor him and respect the Prophet and exalt Allah morning and afternoon.

English Transliteration

Lituminoo biAllahi warasoolihi watuAAazziroohu watuwaqqiroohu watusabbihoohu bukratan waaseelan
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